Essential Components of a Database and Its Building Blocks in DBMS

Essential Components of a Database and its Building Blocks in DBMS

A Database Management System or DBMS is a system for digital data-keeping. Individuals using a DBMS database can perform several functions on it. Users can either use this system to manage database structure or manipulate data. In a DBMS, data is stored in tables. Components of databases generally include Database Access Language, people, data, procedures, software and hardware. Each performs a specific task in the database management environment. 

The area of database management systems is an essential topic in the domain of computer applications. Interested students can pursue an online MCA course from Manipal University Jaipur that provides them with knowledge on the basic building blocks in DBMS. Furthermore, professionals can learn about cloud technology, its applications, big data and machine language from this course.

What is a DBMS and What Does it Do?

DBMS, or Database Management System, is a software system used to create and maintain databases. In a database, this system can help end users to update, create, protect and remove data. DBMS is the most common data management platform that bridges the gap between users and software, ensuring data is easily accessible and consistently organised. 

DBMS mainly manages data. The database engine permits users to update, lock and view data, and its schema specifies the logical structure of the database. The DBMS, engine and schema contribute to data integrity, concurrency and security. Also, these features support consistent data administration methods, in addition to various database administration functions like tuning and performance monitoring, change management, backup and recovery and security. Furthermore, many database management systems are in charge of restarts, automatic roadblocks, auditing and recording of application activities and databases.

Table of Contents

Essential Components of DBMS

DBMS is made up of several components. Each of these elements of the database plays an important role in the system. This set of components forms the database environment that governs the group of data, use of data and management.The components of the database management system are listed below:

  • Data
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • People
  • Database Access Language
  • Procedures
Key Features of DBMS



Data is the collection of facts stored in the database in the form of structured, logical and non-structural data. Structured data is extremely particular and is saved in a set format, whereas unstructured data is a mash-up of many forms of data stored in their original formats. This means that structured data uses schema-on-write, whereas unstructured data uses schema-on-read. The database is first created or defined using a DBMS. After that, the necessary data is updated, stored or accessed in the constructed database. 

Data is one of the most important components of the DBMS, and a typical database will contain both operational data, and metadata. Operational data is the actual data and metadata is the data about data. For instance, when someone stores their name on the database, the DBMS will also store that data along with the size of the name, whether it is independent data or stored as related data. All this information is called metadata. 


The physical parts of the computer are referred to as hardware. It further comprises input-output devices like printers, monitors, etc. and storage devices like hard drives. Any information system’s most visible part, like printers and scanners, is the hardware. Everything that is used to capture data, present it and transform it to the user as output is clubbed in this category. It is an actual system that stores and accesses databases. Workstations enable high-performance computing for individual users in computationally intensive professions such as engineering. Databases can operate on a variety of hardware, ranging from microcomputers to mainframes. This also acts as a link between computers and real-world systems. Servers, a part of DBMS, have large storage capabilities that allow users to share applications, and files and processing on the user’s machine. 


A database management system’s core component is the software. It is a collection or a set of programs that give commands to the computer. Software consists of a set of programs, routines and procedures that are linked with the computer system operation. A program, or software program, is a set of instructions that guides the hardware of a computer to complete a job. This component helps users understand the Database Access Language and converts it to the actual database commands to run or execute them on the database. A DBMS software further includes network software, applications and operating systems to share data with others and to provide data accessibility to users. Some DBMS software examples are Microsoft Access, Oracle MySQL, RDBMS, FoxPro and Clipper. 


There are two categories of people on the DBMS- People who perform different types of operations and people who manage and control databases. Database management systems include people like software developers, database administrators and end-users. The software developer group of people designs and develops DBMS parts. They modify and edit databases, manage massive amounts of data and troubleshoot database issues. Another group of people are database administrators. They manage the entire database management system. It is the responsibility of the database administrators to secure the DBMS and manage user accounts, licence keys, access, and data availability, among others. End-users are the people who update, store, retrieve and delete data. 

Database Access Language

It is a simple language that enables users to write commands so that they can carry out different operations on the data stored within the database. Users use this language to write commands to delete, access and update data. If individuals utilise the language, they can create new tables and databases, delete data and insert data. A database access language comprises two languages: Data Definition Language and Data Manipulation Language. The DDL implements database schema at external, logical and physical levels, whereas the DML provides commands to edit, enter, retrieve and remove data. 


The use of a database management system is guided by some instructions or procedures. From installing a DBMS to logging in and out of the software, it is all part of the procedures. Managing databases, generating reports and taking backups are also procedures of using a DBMS. Depending on the database management system, procedures must be invoked by using the EXEC and CALL statements. The main objective of these procedures is to assist users in performing an operation on the database. Procedures can be used to validate data, regulate access, or decrease network traffic between clients and DBMS servers. Subroutines can include extensive and complicated business logic, resulting in improved speed.

Advantages of Database Management System

DBMS advantages may include:

Better Data Integration

A database management system (DBMS) gives an integrated image, a bird’s eye perspective of an organisation’s activities and procedures. Companies may review controls and performance more effectively and rapidly with unified data.

Effective Data Sharing

Using a DBMS, remote and onsite users may swiftly communicate data by adhering to the appropriate authorisation rules. It aids data accessibility, allowing people to quickly and efficiently communicate organisational data. The enhanced data processes offer an intelligent response to database queries, even ad hoc and spontaneous ones. It leads to more accurate and timely data availability, allowing for better informed and prompt decisions.

Better Decision-Making

Data-driven choices may provide firms with a competitive advantage, but it is only helpful when it is dependable. Organisations may assure data accuracy and quality for analysis and decisions by using a DBMS.

Maximum Productivity and Efficiency

Using a DBMS improves accessibility to data and streamlines information. It increases end-user performance while also increasing an organisation’s efficiency and speed.

Improved Security

A database’s data security is critical. As a result, a data management system restricts database access to only authorised individuals. A username and password are used to control authentication. Unauthorised users are prevented from acquiring resources in a database that might possibly break integrity restrictions.

Uses of DBMS

The database management system is used in several industries, including finance and banks, education, airlines, telecommunication, human resources and sales & marketing. Individuals use DBMS to:

  • Manage access permissions (who can see and edit the data) and security limits.
  • Save any specific information that will be needed to handle the data. This information is known as metadata, and it is not visible to all users of the data.
  • Collect data and offer tools for searching for individual records within a given set of data.
  • When many users ask queries about the database, the inquiries must be addressed quickly. As a result, the data response time is reduced. As a result, the last individual to ask a question will receive a response in an acceptable amount of time.
  • In circumstances when several users wish to access (and maybe edit) the same data entries, data should be redundant.


DBMS is an important system software that lets users store huge amounts of data. It also allows them to update, delete and retrieve data. DBMS assists administrators in managing databases. From telecommunication and banks to the sales and marketing sector, the database management system is used everywhere. 

Database Management System is one of the core areas of study in Computer Applications. Thus, aspiring students can seek an Online MCA Course from Manipal University Jaipur. It is a 24-month course that allows candidates to gain a global tech perspective through immersive learning experiences. You will also get to work on capstone projects and assessments that would advance your career as a software developer or database administrator. 

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